Water Safety

/Water Safety

Boating Code of Conduct

The purpose of this “Code of Conduct” is to encourage boaters and other waterways users to be more aware of their duties and responsibilities towards other users and the environment.

It does not purport to cover all situations users may encounter but rather attempts to raise the level of awareness about the issues involved. Some of the remarks apply to the general use of boats and others apply to navigation on the larger rivers and lakes.

  1. Obtain and use up to date navigation charts for the waterway you are using. (See publications section for details)
  2. On rivers and lakes, follow the navigation marks carefully. On the Shannon System, Barrow Navigation and the western end of the Shannon-Erne Waterway, leave the Red, Circular, Marks on your Right and the Black, Rectangular Marks on your Left, going downstream and the reverse going upstream. On the Erne Navigation and the Eastern End of the Shannon-Erne Waterway from Keshcarrigan, the marks are Red and White Semi-circular perches. One half of the marker is white, indicating the safe side on which to pass, while the other red half indicates the non-navigable side. By always passing to the white side of the marker, your safe passage is assured. On Lough Neagh and the River Bann, the marks are a circle/triangle combination. On the larger lakes such as Lough Ree and Lough Derg, the marks are numbered to help you establish your position.
  3. Keep to the marked channel when going under bridges. If more than one arch is marked for navigation, always use the one on the right.
  4. Give all markers a reasonable wide berth. Floating marks are on chains and the lie of the chain will vary with the current, wind etc. Stakes and perches may be mounted ON the snags they are marking! Keep well clear of weirs. Some weirs, (e.g. on the Barrow) are not guarded and you may be pulled onto them inadvertently.
  5. Be careful when crossing larger lakes to stay within the channel. It is easy, in windy conditions to be blown of course. Watch the marks behind you as well as ahead. It is also easy on river sections, especially in flood conditions, to be tempted to go directly from one mark to the next. This does not always guarantee a safe passage.
  6. Ensure you have adequate headroom under bridges. Check the charts for details.
  7. Navigation outside the marks is dangerous without local knowledge. Admiralty charts are available for the larger lakes but they may not have been updated for many years. (See Publications Page)
  8. When meeting other craft, keep to your right. (However, if they are well clear of you do not cross in front of them just to “get on the right side.”)
  9. When overtaking other craft, leave them to your right.
  10. In confined waters, (e.g. at Portumna Bridge) downstream craft have right of way. Remember, in strong flows, craft coming downstream must be moving quickly to maintain steerage so give them room. Remember also that large craft have a lot of momentum and may find it difficult or impossible to stop in these situations.
  11. Power boats give way to sailing craft. However, skippers of small sailing craft such as dinghies and sail-boards should not insist on this right unnecessarily as forcing a larger craft to alter course suddenly or make a crash stop may itself cause an accident.
  12. Give fisher folk a wide berth at all times. In boats, they may be trolling with long lines and if fishing from the bank, your wake or engine noise may disturb the fishing, or worse, swamp them or their gear.
  13. Slow down in confined waters. Slow means Engine at Tick-Over Only. 5km/Hr. or less.
  14. High speed craft should slow down substantially when passing or meeting other craft or give them a wide berth. If your craft generates substantial wash, you must leave ample room for your wash to settle when entering confined areas. This means that planing and semi-displacement craft should slow down several hundred metres before entering a confined area. IWAI strongly advocates a “No-Wake” policy in and around harbours and other confined areas. Be aware of the effect of your wash at all times. Remember, you may be liable if your wash damages another craft or causes injury.
  15. Do not navigate at night or in conditions of poor visibility.

  1. You must have appropriate life jackets for everyone on board. They should be of the correct size and be in good condition. They should be worn whenever conditions dictate. For children, this means virtually all the time, even when on shore, near the water. Carry a couple of spare life jackets for visitors and emergencies.
  2. Every boat should carry an anchor with adequate chain/warp to hold the craft in poor conditions. You should also have enough ropes of sufficient gauge to moor the boat safely. (With some to spare in the event of unforeseen circumstances.) Coil unused ropes neatly and secure them on deck so they can’t trip people and so they don’t end up in the water and foul the propeller.
  3. You should carry at least one (preferably more) life-rings, accessible from various parts of the boat. At least one should be fitted with a light line to allow it be thrown to a person in distress and hauled back aboard.
  4. Rig a safety line round the outside of the boat so it can be reached by someone who has fallen overboard. (Think of the loops of rope hanging from the gunwales of the old-style lifeboats.)
  5. All vessels using the larger rivers and lakes should have either flares or a large distress flag. (Code Sign “V” – I Require Assisstance – Red X on White Background) Make sure flares are in date. Remember they have a limited shelf life.
  6. All craft should carry adequate fire extinguishers appropriate to the potential hazards. Have them checked regularly. Have a fire-blanket available in the galley area. Smoke detectors are highly recommended.
  7. All craft should have a boarding ladder, bathing platform or other means of recovering someone from the water.
  8. On the larger lakes, it is advisable to tow or carry a dinghy for use in an emergency as well as for exploring less accessible areas. Don’t rely on the outboard. Make sure the dinghy is fitted with oars or paddles.
  9. All craft should be fitted with bilge-pump of adequate capacity. In the event of a holing, give priority to stopping the water coming in. (Assuming this is possible without further endangering yourself or your crew.) A life-jacket, blanket, pillow, tarpaulin or whatever will go a long way to stemming the flow in many cases. Even a 25mm hole will admit an astonishing amount of water in a short time.
  10. Gas installations should be in copper pipe and properly maintained. Fit and use a gas detector. Never ignore a smell of gas – even if the detector does.
  11. Carry a good first-aid kit and learn how to use it. Do a first aid course with one of the recognised organisations.
  12. If you have a VHF (Very High Frequency) radio, learn how to use it properly, take the test and get an operators licence. You must get a ship’s licence also. It is illegal to operate a VHF radio without an operator’s license or install one on a vessel without a ship’s license. Remember the PRIMARY use for VHF radios is for the safety of life at sea. Confine your use to essential traffic only. Your transmissions may be heard many miles away and could interfere with a distress situation you are unaware of. If you want to chatter, buy a cellphone.

  1. Listen to the weather forecasts before you set out, especially on the larger rivers and lakes. Listen to RTE or BBC Shipping Forecasts or phone weather dial. Forecast information is also available by listening to VHF Channel 16.
  2. Notify someone responsible of your destination and ETA before setting out on the larger rivers and lakes. This is especially important in smaller craft or if you are going single-handed.
  3. Know your boat and crew’s limits and don’t push them. It’s better to stay ashore safe and sound and a bit disappointed than to attempt a trip and get into difficulties Don’t overload your boat.
  4. Don’t allow your crew to fend off with hands and feet. Especially with a larger boat. Use a fender. It’s too easy to crush fingers and toes – even with a light boat.
  5. Carry enough fuel for the trip. ALWAYS check your fuel levels before you depart. Don’t rely 100% on the gauge. Check with a dipstick or sight-glass as well. Store additional fuel only in approved containers.
  6. Carry out routine maintenance and regular checks on your boat. Carry essential spares and the necessary tools and learn how to use them. (Filters, belts, spark-plugs, pump impellers, fuses etc.)
  7. Every boat should have adequate third-part/public liability insurance. Make sure this covers the boat when it’s out of the water or laid-up for the winter. Make sure it also covers the trailer, even if it’s not in use.
  8. Stay well clear of swimmers in the water. “Buzzing” swimmers in an outboard powered dinghy is extremely dangerous and should not be tolerated. In some places, watch out for divers. Their support boat should carry an “A” flag. (White flag with a blue swallow-tail)
  9. Practice “Man-Overboard” routines before you need to do them for real. Make sure at least one other person knows how to handle the boat in these situations, it may be the skipper who goes overboard.
  10. If at all possible, have an emergency means of propulsion. This can be a bracket on the stern to take an outboard, or the dinghy lashed alongside with the outboard running.
  11. If you do get into difficulties in open water, STAY WITH THE BOAT as long as you can, even if it capsizes or starts to sink. It’s much easier to find a boat, even a partially submerged one than a lone swimmer in the water.
  12. In a real emergency, (and only in a real emergency) attract attention using the VHF Radio (Channel 16), Cellular Phone (112), CB Radio (Channel 9), Flares, V-Flag etc.
  13. Don’t swim after floating objects.
  14. If you are caught out on a lake in heavy weather seek shelter as soon as possible. The seas will usually be quieter closer to the windward shore so it makes sense to head that way if possible but be sure you have enough water underneath you. The boat will usually ride easier head to wind or perhaps stern to the wind, but be careful of the latter if you have an open cockpit or limited freeboard at the stern that the boat does not fill with water from the following waves. It is often possible to get to a safe harbour by steering a zig-zag course where you are more-or-less head or stern to the wind for large portions of time and you make your turns under the shelter of the wind-ward shore.
  15. Mooring lines should generally be set so as to avoid having a mass of rope on the jetty. Either splice a loop in the end of the rope and drop that over a bollard or take one end of the rope and pass it round the bollard or through the ring and fasten both ends on deck.

  1. All boats used on the inland waterways should be fitted with holding tanks or chemical toilets. Marine toilets that discharge effluent into the watercourse are now illegal on most inland waterways in Ireland. Dispose of the effluent only at appropriate pump-out stations.
  2. In harbours, use public toilets as much as possible.
  3. Don’t pump oily bilge water into the watercourse. Find and fix the source of the oil. Clean out the bilge with oil absorbent material and dispose of correctly. Fit an oil trap to your bilge pump.
  4. Use only “Green” detergents and soaps on board.
  5. Leave all mooring places, banks, piers and the shore in pristine condition. Bring home or correctly dispose of all your rubbish. Plastic beer can holders should be cut up and disposed of carefully lest they entangle wild-life. Tidy up any litter you see. Set a good example. Recycle as much material as you can.
  6. Respect the wildlife. Remember that birds and animals are sensitive to noise and disturbance, especially during the breeding season.
  7. Keep your wash to a minimum in confined areas. On canals and narrow rivers especially, your wash can cause serious bank-erosion which affects the wildlife and also damages the navigation itself.
  8. Do not leave fishing hooks, weights and lines lying around. Children (and indeed adults) and wildlife can easily get entangled. Do NOT use lead fishing weights. They are lethal to swans and other wildlife if ingested.
  9. Keep dogs under control as required by law.
  10. Take care when re-fuelling to avoid spillages. Use a siphon rather than pouring from a large drum.
  11. Light fires and barbecues only where it is safe to do so. Ensure the fire is out before leaving. Be aware of the effect of your smoke. Dispose of the ash carefully.

  1. Moor economically. Take up as little space as you can. Be prepared to move to make room for boats ahead of and behind you.
  2. Allow craft with elderly people or young children to moor against the quay and be willing to move off to allow them to do so.
  3. In crowded harbours, be prepared to moor alongside others and encourage others to moor alongside you. (Aside from being economical with quay space, it’s a great way to make new friends!) Always ask permission before coming alongside and make sure your boat is well fendered.
  4. Where a number of boats are “rafted” together, boats away from the quay should bring lines to the shore as well as to their neighbours. The cleats on the inner boats may not be up to the job and it will prevent the “raft” swinging about.
  5. Discourage dangerous horseplay among your crew, it can lead to tragedy.
  6. Your crew and passengers are your sole responsibility. You must make sure they are aware of basic safety drills and behaviour on board.
  7. Drinking and driving are as inappropriate in a boat as in a car. Save the “hard-tack” until the boat is securely tied up for the night. Never allow the use of illegal drugs aboard your boat. (Operating a boat under the influence of alcohol or drugs is an offence.)
  8. Avoid running engines (or indeed generators) at anti-social hours.
  9. Observe the 5-day mooring rules.

Fast Craft Code of Conduct

The purpose of IWAI’s  “Code of Conduct” is to encourage boaters and other waterways users to be more aware of their duties and responsibilities towards other users and the environment. It does not purport to cover all situations users may encounter but rather attempts to raise the level of awareness about the issues involved. What follows here is additional information for persons using fast craft.

Plan your trip. Be aware of the Collision Rules get weather forecast for the area and the time you are boating. Check all safety gear. Ensure sufficient P.F.D.s, Personal Flotation Devices, or Life jackets (LINK being created on new site ) for plain English for all onboard including any guests. Check Engine oil level (dip stick on four stroke engine, oil tank or mixture on two stroke engines ). Check fuel is sufficient for trip with a minimum of 20% reserve ( know your Crafts endurance ). Check engine attachment bolts are tight. Check all cables and fuel lines are secure, turn engine lock to lock. Check electrical connections, test start engine (ensure a water supply ). Check telltale water jet. Secure all loose items. It is essential to have Paddles /Oars, Anchor and Warp, Distress Flag or Flares, basic First Aid Kit, Bailer/Bilge Pump, Knife, Fire Extinguisher, Spare Kill Cord and Spare Oil. Make your own checklist or ask the lifeboats for their free engine checklist.

Check trailer capacity is sufficient for the craft and the gross weight for the towing vehicle ( Max 3.5 Tonnes with brakes ) is not exceeded. Check wheel bearings for grease and wear ( carry a spare wheel and bearing ). Check tyres for wear, splitting, and pressure. Check craft is sitting correctly on trailer pads or rollers. Check that Craft is well balanced on the trailer and there is not too much weight on the drawbar. Check there is a secure strap holding the rear section of the craft on the trailer, in addition to the winch hook at the bow. Check tow bar, light socket, trailer lights, tow vehicle mirrors.

At a public slipway have consideration for others and have a second person beside the craft when reversing. Put on life jackets, do not delay, have the craft ready to float off the trailer with a long bow line to walk the craft to a berth, should it fail to start or to load. Park the trailer away from the slipway so that it is not a hazard to others (rinse the bearings if dirty in Salt Water).

Ensure everyone is wearing life jackets, proper foot ware, clothes suitable for the much lower temperatures and wind chill on the Water. Board one at a time and balance the craft so it sits level on the water. Bring a method of getting in touch (V.H.F. Mobile Phone) and attracting attention (Flares, Distress Flag, Torch) Advise someone ashore of your plans and arrange a call time to confirm your arrival. Should you navigate at night and have the skills and equipment required do so at displacement speed.

Loosen fuel tank vent, prime engine attach kill cord. Start engine allow time to warm up. Look around identify any possible problems ( Swimmers other Vessels Etc.) and engage gear and motor at idle speed out of the harbour when you are at least 200 Meters away from moored craft, harbours, bridges, swimmers, small craft, you can apply power use a term like “powering up “ to advise the passengers, and push the throttle smoothly forward, trim the craft for best performance and minimum wake. If water-skiing/wakeboarding/towing toys avoid the person in the water by circling them with the tow rope. Ensure that the tow rope is tight before applying power, always have a responsible lookout in the passenger seat. When recovering someone from the water approach bow in to wind and switch off the engine when they are boarding. When slowing down advise passengers “powering down”, smoothly pull back on the throttle when you return to within 200 Meters of other craft ensure that you are at idle speed.

If the engine stops throw out the anchor with sufficient warp (rope and chain) for the depth, if you are in deep water let it all out. Check fuel and fuel lines. check fuel filter (dirt or water ). Check kill chord and connections attract attention of another craft and request a tow, there are no salvage laws relating to accepting a tow on Inland Waters.

If time permits engage neutral and steer the bow toward the casualty (this kicks the stern away) return downwind slowly (no wash) keeping the casualty in sight. Approach at idle speed bow into wind switch off engine when contact is made. If there is no boarding ladder the outboard engine fin will assist boarding. Carry a second kill cord in case the driver is the casualty!

If you are on the Rocks you will not sink. So use time to inspect for damage if there is a hole then get help. If you are holed while afloat use anything you can to stop the flow eg. seat cushions or spare jackets. Get help to escort you to shore, transfer all passengers and gear to escort craft and lift immediately on landing .

Land all passengers and gear. Approach Trailer slowly with engine on shallow tilt. Attach winch rope and ensure the craft is central on the trailer. switch off and tilt .Winch in and recover. Strap down rinse with fresh water if necessary (Inc Engine ) open drain in the hull if fitted.

When operating other types of high-speed craft be particularly conscious of the wind effect especially at low-speed. Craft using wind propellers as a primary power source eg. Air Boats, Hovercraft, and Float Planes have best directional stability when they are into wind. As a result of this it is advisable to use a conventionally powered craft as a tug in confined areas again the 200 Meter idle speed zone should be applied. The wearing of automatic life jackets is not advisable in enclosed cockpits as their deployment could restrict an emergency exit.

To minimise the noise intrusion on others try to vary the areas of active every 30 mins or so. Avoid built up areas (it is probably prohibited anyway) be aware that the wind will carry noise and water amplifies it, avoid narrow river sections especially in spring nesting time, try to balance your enjoyment with nature other river users and residents.

Training in all aspects of power boating is highly recommended and available nationwide. The I.S.A. provide a list of recognised training centres. The Inland Waterways Association of Ireland offers its members a quarterly magazine. In addition rallies and cruises run all summer and help to improve skills. Both organisations believe in education rather than legislation so let’s try to make this voluntary code work.

What to buy – A Rough Guide

Buoyancy Aids are Not Life Jackets!!! Buoyancy aids, which cost from €30 to €100, should only be worn by people taking part in water sports where part of the fun is falling in (Skiing, sailing, jet skiing, windsurfing etc.) They are designed to assist someone who is water confident in keeping afloat and swimming. Buoyancy aids have flotation padding on the front and back but do not have a neck collar. This means that the wearer has to work a little to keep their head out of the water. Some one who goes unconscious while wearing a buoyancy aid will generally float face down and will drown.

Life Jackets (cost from €100 to €200) on the other hand, have their main buoyancy at the wearer’s chest, none at the back and a collar supporting the back of the neck. Therefore, the casualty is forced into a floating position lying on their back with their head and face supported clear of the water.

Life jackets come in different shapes and sizes. They are either:

  • manually inflated;
  • automatically inflated or are;
  • made of foam.

Automatic life jacket with a crotch strap passing between the wearer’s legs. This is the norm for most adult leisure users. It would be a European Standard or CE marked 150 Newton Automatic Life jacket.  This will deploy within 2 seconds of the wearer falling in. In the highly unlikely event of the auto system failing to deploy, the user can still pull a little toggle to manually deploy the little CO2 cylinder that inflates the jacket. Make sure that you have a spare cylinder (a re-arming kit) to replace one if it has been used.

You should check your life jacket regularly for faults, a quick visual inspection for cuts or nicks and check that the cylinder is full and has not rusted into its socket! Blow up the jacket using the mouthpiece to check for leaks or damage especially along the seams, deflate the jacket and repack carefully.

After using your life jacket on a wet day don’t leave it on its side in the boot of your car for a few days as it will deploy in the boot as you are doing 70 on the M50! (Bad for the nerves!!!).  When you get home, open it up, remove the cylinder and hang it up to dry naturally.  We strongly recommend you view:

Manually activated life jackets are really only recommended for users such as rescue agencies who need the safety of a life jacket but may still need to enter the water without the jacket deploying.

Heavy Duty 275 Newton Life Jackets are really only required by users wearing heavy equipment such as Fire Brigade Personnel, or whom are operating off shore where extra buoyancy and security from a twin chamber life jacket is required.

The Solid Foam type (beloved of Hire Boat Firms as they are maintenance free) while effective, are bulky and uncomfortable to wear and are really only recommended for someone like a small child who would not know how to; or would be otherwise unable to pull the activation toggle on an inflatable jacket if the auto system failed.

See also “GUIDANCE ON THE SELECTION OF PERSONAL FLOTATION DEVICES (PFDs) FOR USE ON-BOARD FISHING VESSELS” (85kB) issued as marine notice no. 7 in 2002.

Code of Practice

Code of Practice: The Safe Operation of Recreational Craft – published May 2006 – ISBN: 0-7557-7234-2

The Code sets out current legislative requirements governing recreational craft, as well as providing detailed guidance and information on best practice for the safe operation of such craft.

The Code applies to all recreational craft operating in coastal and inland waters whether used for competitive or non-competitive purposes.  It covers sailing craft, including windsurfers, motorboats, ski boats, craft propelled using outboard engines, personal watercraft, canoes, kayaks and non-powered craft.

See: transport.ie

Download here

Topics covered:

  • Safe Canoeing
  • Life Jacket Safety
  • Jet Ski Guidelines
  • Yacht Safety
  • Dinghy Safety
  • Boating on the Waterways
  • Safe Windsurfing
  • Safe Diving
  • Machinery Breakdowns
  • Man Overboard Fishing Vessels
  • GMDSS for Small Craft
  • Emergency Procedures for
    Pleasure Craft
  • Emergency Procedures for
    Fishing Vessels

Irish Water Safety Associationwww.iws.ie
Safety on the Waterwww.safetyonthewater.ie
Guide to buying a Life Jacketwww.iwai.ie/boating/aboutLifeJackets.html

Life Jackets – A Blog

2103, 2016

Life Jackets

March 21st, 2016|

When I first sat down and thought about writing this article I wondered at what level should I pitch it at? What information do most of the readers have already [...]

Life Jacket Repairs

CompanyContact
Solas Marine Services+353 (0)1-856-1320
Galway Maritime Services+353 (0)91 566568
Anchor Safety LTD+353 (0)91 -770735
www.iwai.ie/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/irish-waterways.jpg" data-bg-repeat="false">

Safe Boating!
Stuart

Stuart McNamara is Ireland’s National Motorboat and Power Boat Trainer and is also the Owner and Director of Lough Ree Power Boat School.

Lifejackets are available from all chandlers and on-line from Lough Ree Power Boat School at wwww.powerboat.org.

© Stuart McNamara 2002-2004