Royal Canal Branch Submission on Heritage Ireland 2030

IWAI NavWatch Group

c/o Rose Cottage

The Maws


Co. Kildare

Heritage Ireland 2030,

Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht,

Custom House, Dublin 1.

By email –

31st March 2019

Dear Dept of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht,

Submission regarding Heritage Ireland 2030

Please find below, the submission from the IWAI Nav-Watch group.

  1. Introduction

The Inland Waterways Association of Ireland (IWAI) was established in 1954. It has 23 branches across the island of Ireland. It has 3500 members. It represents a wide range of members interests regarding inland waterways use and activities, community interests, navigation issues, tourism development, all in relation to the socio and economic benefits of the waterways. Many members are not boat owners.

IWAI has a long history of working with statutory agencies, funding groups, and community interests with regards to promoting access to the waterways. In recent years this has taken the form of working with Waterways Ireland – the navigation authority, government Departments in relation to legislative reform regarding byelaws on boating use on the canals and Barrow sections of the waterways, and undertaking large infrastructural refurbishment projects such as the regeneration of the Boyne Canal in Co. Meath. IWAI also supports Special Interest Groups such as the CSIG which has undertaken a national mapping and charting project of much of the Shannon river and has had these systems published. In late 2018, as a response to the severe difficulties encountered by boating users of the Grand Canal and Royal Canals the special interest Nav-Watch group was established within the Canal and Barrow branches of IWAI. The purpose of this group is to constructively contribute to the knowledge base regarding access to waterways navigation development and use from the boaters’ perspective within the opportunities this information can provide to agencies.

The Nav-Watch project welcomes the opportunity to submit to the Heritage Ireland 2030 public consultation process.

  • Waterways are a valuable element of Ireland’s social and industrial heritage in terms of how the county used these as transport arteries in times gone by, with a focus on some elements of the waterways in the last number of decades for leisure and amenity use.
  • This in turn opens up the wider arena of heritage sites nearby many waterways, and their integration into use for tourism and economic benefit.
  • More recent upgrading of towpaths as walkways and cycleways along canals offers opportunities for integration of new use of these amenities with the already existing heritage which will benefit from compatible and complementary recognition of waterways heritage.

The Nav-Watch submission sees that the draft Heritage Ireland 2030 document

  • recognises the waterways as attractions for domestic users and visitors,
  • acknowledges landscapes as speaking of the past and shaping the future,
  • commits to a revitalised and refreshed National Heritage Plan,
  • includes community, the economy and overall society as a beneficiary of heritage,
  • intends to be a cohesive plan across various sectors operational over the next decade by
  • engagement of communities, businesses and local and national government.

1. Submission Points

Within the three themes in the document, IWAI Nav-Watch suggests several points –

Theme 1 / National Leadership and Heritage

Policy and regulation in terms of the waterways needs updating –

  • Bridges, locks and some buildings associated with the canals are ‘Listed’ on the Record of Protected Structures in the counties through which the canals pass. However, the NIAH (National Inventory of Architectural Heritage) through their website fails to list the canals themselves as ‘Listed’ structures. Canals were built in the days before mechanization, they were built entirely by hand. They are, collectively or individually, the largest man-made structures on our island and should be recognised as such with ‘Listed’ status for the entire structure as a whole (Bridges, Locks, the Navigation, Banks, Bed and Cut). They are national routes, too often compromised by infringement through poor planning at county level. They need to be considered at a national level to insure their working future. They were built to operate commercially and haul goods, their future may lie in Tourism and Heritage Appreciation but that too has a commercial and economic benefit to the nation.
  • Navigation for these routes should be maintained as a depth and breadth of water so that the heritage boats can continue to travel the system. The conditions of the canals have deteriorated overthe years and it is difficult to negotiate the canals with the heritage boats which were originally built to carry goods along the canal network. It is vitallly important that steps are taken to recognise these historic amenities and are preserved for generations to come without deteriorating further. There is very little recognition of our inland maritme heritage, all too often the facilities are neglected. Local development planning uses canals as a selling point for housing etc but collectively there is no awareness of what a critical part of Ireland’s transportation and development history they played.
  • There is an opportunity here to integrate the above suggestions across a range of government departments such as the Dept of Tourism, Transport, Education and Sport for promotion of navigation of the waterways. Associated bodies such as Failte Ireland and Tourism Ireland should actively market boating and the adventure of slow tourism, which, touring and using he canals utilises.
  • Tourism and economic development of the waterways system is an attraction that local chambers of commerce and other development groups should be made familiar with as to the financial and social benefits for their areas by the promotion of boating.
  • An improved strategy to water level management would assist in preserving the amenity. A system of data sensors could leverage an online information platform for remote access. This would enable all water based users to assess the water level statistics in the desired area. Ensuring an effective water level management strategy ensures the integrity of the canl infrastructure is preserved and the facitilies are available for all water based users.

Theme 2  / Heritage Partnerships

Specific locations on the waterways should be actively encouraged to develop and promote boating tourism. There is great value in walking or cyclying the upgraded towpaths (greenways), however, there is nothing like actually boating along the canal and inland waterways systems. Recently, a master plan covering the Shannon navigation has been launched. Unfortunately there has been no consideration for the Royal or Grand canal systems, development of a heritage and preservation should be considered to leverage the value and benefits from these under utilised amenitites.

The triangular route of the combination of the canal and barrow (see picture below) is known as the ‘Green & Silver’ waterways route between Dublin and the midlands. There is huge potential for economic benefit and social activity for the regions which this route travel through. It forms a waterways circular (triangular) route of the Royal Canal, River Shannon, Grand Canal and Dublin (crossing the Liffey to get from the Royal or the Grand or vice versa). Heritage Ireland 2030 should consider this navigation route of international significance, one that has not been considered for its potential but which needs to be elevated to national planning status level to flourish. The route travels through some of the most spectacularly beautiful areas of Ireland midlands. Since the completed restoration of the Royal canal in 2010 the route is considered to be a bucket-list goal for many boaters in Ireland and the UK, the potential for development as a tourist route has yet to been considered or realised.

Figure 1 – Green and Silver route – the Royal Canal, The Grand Canal (crossing the Liffey in Dublin) and the River Shannon. Source – IWAI. As yet this is an unexplored route for major heritage value/boating tourism.

Figure 2 – Green and Silver book cover – comprised of the Royal Canal, the Grand Canal and the mid-Shannon. The route is approx. 320 km and can be completed in 10-12 days of continuous travel by boat, however it is preferable to take as long as you can.

In the boating community, ‘The Green and Silver Route’ is based on the route taken on a documented triangular journey undertaken by L.T.C. Rolt in 1946. His subsequent publication of ‘The Green and Silver’ book in 1949, is now in its 7th edition and as boating ‘classic’ has become a bible for canals navigation enthusiasts in Ireland and the visitors to date from overseas. Rolt was one of the founders of the Inland Waterways Association (UK) in 1946.

Boaters who currently do this route in Ireland can register to take part in the Green and Silver logbook challenge, by which they get various passport style stamps on an old fashioned log book format; a certificate; and a brass plaque to mark their achievement. The Dublin branch of the Inland Waterways Association of Ireland have been the main drivers of the use of this route and administer the registration, log book and plaque allocations. However it is also the users of the Green and Silver route who have contributed to it becoming known in the boating community over the last decade and it is an excellent example of ‘ground up’ grassroots user based perspective being able to contribute to regional development, once the relevant support and resources to push it on further are considered and applied. It is 70 years since the publication of the original book so it is timely that in 2019 it gains more exposure.

Figure 3 – Green & Silver Log Book

Figure 4 – Green & Silver Certificate

The Green and Silver route runs through nine of the twelve local authority areas – from Dublin City Council out the Royal Canal through Fingal, Meath, Kildare, Westmeath and Longford to the River Shannon (with access from the Shannon to the Camlin River – a particularly tranquil and secret spot on the overall navigation), back in the Grand Canal through Offaly, Kildare and South Dublin, with a spur line off in into Laois to access the River Barrow system. This route has the potential to be a major international level boating destination servicing both the city and the wider region and should be viewed as a collective resource with regard to its navigable future.

The canals network in Ireland is some 200 years old, and still functioning in much the same way as it is in the early 1800’s. Manually operated lock are still operated the same way, the canal banks ensure the immediate natural environment is available and local history and heritage is on its doorstep in the many towns and villages through which the Green & Silver route passes. We are very good at presenting our nation’s history through documentaries, drama, theatre and so on, but there is nothing that can evoke the actual real experience of canal boating except to undertake it. We constantly hear said by German and British tourists on our waterways “You have the best waterways in Europe, why don’t you use them more!” In the case of the canals, this could not be truer. We have failed to invest in their tourist potential so far.

Accordingly, this submissions suggests that Heritage Ireland 2030 pay special attention to this navigation route for tourism, economic and social benefit in its future planning. The Heritage Council could initiate a process whereby all local authorities are advised to take cognizance of the benefits of considering this route of collective benefit for the whole region. It will be necessary to work together over the lifetime of the plan and relevant national plans, county development plans, local economic and community plans and area plans to distribute the relevance of the Green and Silver route across the region; and Heritage Ireland 2030 should also push to have this route on national tourism plans.

Canal inland navigation routes are highly popular and economically beneficial in other jurisdictions and interconnectivity is the nature of the canals systems worldwide as that was the reason for their establishment. While many have fallen out of use as their original trade routes, they have been redeveloped into major inland boating destinations, some examples are shown in the following figures:

Figure 5 – Stourport Ring, in the UK, interior route encompasses the purple area, interconnecting various locations along the route, with its extended links out to the Irish Sea north and south of Wales.

Figure 6 – Canal du Midi in southern France

Figure 6 above shows the Canal du Midi is a 240 km long canal in Southern France. Originally named the Canal royal en Languedoc and renamed by French revolutionaries to Canal du Midi in 1789, the canal was at the time considered one of the greatest construction works of the 17th century. The canal connects the Garonne to the Étang de Thau on the Mediterranean and along with the 193 km long Canal de Garonne forms the Canal des Deux Mers, joining the Atlantic to the Mediterranean

Figure 7 – The Central Ring, a very popular circuit amongst Dutch cruisers, taking in some of the most attractive cruising grounds and historic stopping places, a ‘circular economy’

Figure 8 – Belgian canal routes showing a range of interior navigation destinations, bringing economic and social benefit to all locations.

The economic value of the boating community is important and valuable across Europe and opens up the adjacent heritage sites value to waterways users. Integrating the heritage into waterways use can develop boat traffic along canals and other inland waterways systems. As well as the per boat spend of domestic and visiting craft to the local communities along the canal, boats bring life to the canals, with their visual impact as attractions to other canal side users. A British Waterways statistic advises one boat attracts 84 visitors and the lifestyle benefits of having boats actively navigating a canal network adds a multitude to the place-making and identification of various locations along any route.

People who have been boating this midlands route for decades are well aware of the beauty, tranquillity and majesty of many of the locations along the canals routes where greenways are being developed and in support of access by all to the fabulous amenity of the navigation system. As well as its own locations, the Green and Silver route provides access to the wider breadth of the Irish inland navigation system, and for that very reason should also be developed/encouraged as a navigation route.

It is quite reasonable to expect small boats travelling in to the Dublin, Waterford or Limerick estuaries to consider travelling into the midland inland waterways as part of their visit to this country, utilising the existing navigation to permit that access for instance to various sites with the Irelands Ancient East tourism brand and the emerging Irelands Hidden Heartland along the Shannon, all of which should be explored as part of an upgrade agenda for the Green & Silver route.

Developing the Green & Silver Navigation route for tourism development both within the city and out into extended locations should be seen as a significant opportunity for heritage access which could for instance be incorporated into brand development options for marketing.

Figure 9 – Irish Times article, 19th January 2019.

As well as an overall route such as the Green and Silver, specific locations along canal should be actively encouraged and supported to develop boating tourism for access to the heritage sites of canals and inland waterways. This can include encouraging boat hire companies to send smaller boat customers along the canal network as well as for instance highlighting towns which have very accessible waterways. For instance Edenderry in Co Offaly is such a location which is one a level of 18 miles of flat canal waterways – ideally place for instance for day trip and short tourism boat trip based access to the waterways. These have been developed in other location e.g. Sallins and Athy and could be used as models to apply to other locations such as Edenderry. A working review of all such locations undertaken as part of the Heritage Ireland 2030 plan could be beneficial. The Green and Silver route runs through large and small towns such as Naas, Edenderry, Tullamore, Athlone, Longford, Mullingar, Enfield, Kilkcock, Leixlip and Maynooth. These can offer local boating route points e.g. weekend hire boats, to use the local areas of the Green and Silver from those locations. Small businesses in this area are starting up and indeed somewhat established –  notably Royal Canal Boat Trips operating trips between Clonsilla and Kilcock on the Royal Canal (ref; on the Grand Canal based in Sallins and more recently on the Barrow along adding to the long established Barrowline cruisers in Vicarstown. Also, there are several hire companies on the Shannon that would be willing to send their tourist hire boaters into the midlands if they could be confident of access and reliability of use as per several points in this document.

Finally, with the current partnerships in development for upgrading towpaths to cycleways and walkways, it is imperative that the different agencies connect and are aware of each others needs. For instance there have been several examples of greenway development where waterways users have made considerable submissions because the needs of the waterways and waterways users have not either been taken in to account or understood by the development agency. The continued use of waterways by boaters will very much depend on access and support for those needs often in relation to moving heritage vessels around the inland waterways system.

Theme 3 / Communities and Heritage

The waterways community of users within the Inland Waterways Association of Ireland and other user groups are valuable resource for access to the heritage of the Irish inland waterways system.

A mapping exercise to identify all heritage locations along the Royal and Grand Canals, the River Barrow and the River Shannon would be of benefit to integrate heritage and historical sites along the waterways into future waterways tourism promotion. Without this basic charting of the infrastructure, it will be difficult to identify specific locations for development and support, whether they are boating issues or opportunities for tourism development along the range of inland waterways in Ireland, below.

Figure 10 – : Irish Inland Waterways network showing the Royal and Grand canal connectivity through the midlands to the Shannon and the wider Shannon / Erne system

Figure 10 above shows the extensive network of integrated inland waterways in Ireland, it includes access to the west coast in/out through both Dublin Limerick effectively a navigation route right across Ireland – connecting the Irish Sea to the Atlantic Ocean and the Shannon-Erne system; and showing its navigation connectivity to the Barrow system permitting access to/from the South/East coast via the Waterford/Three Sisters estuary, all in that development of the midlands routes are critical elements of the overall navigation system. Source: IWAI.

As can be seen from the map provided, the canal and navigation network cover both the Republic and the North of Ireland. It is an ideal navigational network in which to develop cross border activities and linkages between all elements of the network, not just those adjacent to the border and the Green and Silver route access to the midlands and the north should be seen as an ideal platform by which to develop further interconnectness between the two jurisdications.

IWAI Tranquillity Special Interest Group (T-SIG)

The IWAI are currently in the process of developing a network of ‘T’ (Tranquility) sites through their T-SIG group. These are especially Tranquil locations, many known only to local boaters, but all will be mapped, and their exact locations documented on the IWAI’s digital maps of the Irish waterways network. These are locations where the boater can really get away from it all and moor-up or anchor-out for a time and just relax.

There is much research being undertaken in Ireland and Europe regarding the calming and psychological benefits of water-based tranquility experiences. It has been proven that any experience of tranquil moments (walking/sitting/cycling/kayaking/boating) have a calming effect on people.

With the development of this research and the development of the IWAI T sites, a consideration of the value of the canal heritage is vitally important to the communities throughout the canal network.

3. Conclusion

A strategic Heritage Ireland 2030 plan will shape investment for the next decade and beyond so it is suggested it is imperative to include the waterways for their sustainability into the future.

Rural development is crucial in the midlands, both from an economic and social perspective, particularly with the large reduction in current Bord na Mona employment expected in the near future, which does actually present opportunities for re-imagining the midlands within the perspective of this submission and making the waterways a huge part of the heritage offering for those counties.

The Green and Silver route is a major asset which is not currently collectively in the attention span of the relevant local authorities and it should be elevated to be included as an asset in the collabortive regional plan for its economic and social benefit. It has the relevant scale across a wide range of the local authorities in the region and can function in the provision of tourism and employment. A creative approach of integrating the Green and Silver route into the national heritage plan will attract talent and skills to its development and majorly contributing to a regional place-making initiative.

Developing people and place initiatives is an important element of utilising waterside opportunities. In particular canals offer a unique opportunity for development this agenda. Buckman (2016) points ‘ to the benefit of place-making’ with regard to canals (or with a typo making it play-making! – author comment) and the US ‘Projects for Public Spaces ‘What Makes a Successful Place’ which examines three projects that capitalised on their canal infrastructure for both place making and economic and social development which is suggested to Heritage Ireland 2030  as a reference read.

In Europe, attention is drawn to the recent regeneration of the Scottish canals in relation to tourism benefits and in particular to the policy driven process that enabled this to take place (Lennon, 2016) and attention is paid to the Falkirk Wheel and The Kelpies arts projects (McKean et al, 2017) – perhaps ideas for linking to the Sculpture Park at Lough Boora as a canal destination if looked at from an Irish perspective.

Both canals have a terminus in the city. This could be addressed for the regional planning of extended use of the system into the midlands and recognized, as the population outside the city are very much also connected to the capital in many ways and the route can be considered a major recreational/navigation resource for access to waterways and waterside heritage and for instance the Cotswold Canals restoration study is recommended insofar as to how waterways contribute to the social and amenity benefit for nearby cities (Stening, 2004).

Economic benefit and a wide range of employment opportunities are a major common point coming through from many of the economic analysis reports that have been completed on various waterways. For recommendations, this group suggests further research by Heritage Ireland prior to its final draft on evaluations such as those done on the Kennet & Avon Canal (Millar et al, 2004); the Mancunian Way, (Deas et al, 1998) and the study by Maeer et al (2004).

Supporting the canals infrastructure in their current use and potential regeneration are key opportunities for the integration of land and marine planning for heritage access (for instance for small sea vessels to be able to traverse the country and access the Shannon via the Green and Silver as per a further point elsewhere). Such use of the canals will significantly contribute to access by the population and visitors to biodiversity and natural heritage in various ways, principally by making heritage more available to both the general population and to visiting boating tourists for connectivity between ecological and natural surrounding habitat and flora and fauna accessible by using the canals systems.

As well as the tourism aspects of the Green and Silver route, the integration of land use and transport is being developed by the greenways on both canal systems with their access to heritage sites along the canals which from a quality of life aspect utilizes the waterways further to contribute to economic and social growth in the midlands, which cannot be overestimated.

Canal infrastructure is encountering difficulty and this should be actively paid attention to by Heritage Ireland 2030 so as canal use for inland navigation can continue. Some difficulties are outlined below.

Water Sources

Figure 11 – The Royal Canal has been seriously affected by water shortage, only 10 years after it reopened, particularly over the last couple of seasons. Picture from summer 2018 – Coolnahey Harbour, summit level of the Royal Canal near Mullingar.

Reliable water provision for the Royal Canal is a significant need which can be realized by the provision of water pumping stations from adjacent rivers with a release of the Lough Owel water source for the Royal back to that navigation. Pumping technology is not new to canals. Birmingham City regenerated its own network using this technology, many examples of which are available on further research.

Other water sources for the navigation have been compromised over the years but can be fixed. These include ones for the Grand Canal where for instance the Bord na Mona source in Offaly was considerably reduced due to cutaway bog activity. Now that the post cutaway bog use of the source is not needed for the Lough Boora location of cutaway peat activity as it is a recreation park, it too should also be released back to the Grand Canal.

A survey ascertaining original water sources for the Royal and Grand Canals and how they can be reinstated would be most beneficial to ensuring its further development.


There is one particular lifting bridge which crosses the Royal Canal behind Connolly station, and it only opens a six times a year at designated times to let boats through and is a major delay point on the route and discourages users from trying the circumnavigation. Affectionately known by the boating community as the ‘Effin’ bridge, it can only usually let one or two vessels through at a time, always during mid-week once they have booked their passage well in advance. This bridge illustrates better than any how blocking the navigation deprives it of it’s lifeblood or boat traffic and seriously curtails tourism development on the overall route and locally within Dublin. It is understand by local Dublin IWAI branch members that the bridge is due for upgrade/renewal, and that Iarnrod Eireann are open to implementing a better system, or preferably an ‘under lock’ where the canal effectively locks down to a lower level while it passes under the bridge to allow regular access to that part of the canal.

Figure 12 – The ‘Effin’ Bridge, above Spencer Dock, Dublin. Barge 118B beginning its passage under the rail bridge, elevated on four jacks by Irish Rail staff, just below Lock 1 on the Royal Canal.

It is recommended that Heritage Ireland 2030 work with Iarnrod Eirean on this matter and perhaps utilise funding from the European Regional Development Fund or more locally the Urban Regeneration Fund under the National Planning Framework to address the needs of this project.

In general, while canals are being elevated into the status of more accessible public realm through the development of greenways and access to these routes, this IWAI NavWatch group have however unfortunately been able to identify area of greenway development that could do with improvement. These include the specific requirement for instance for

  • an awareness of the historical and heritage value of canal sites; and as such should not include infrastructure such
    • as plastic signage;
    • inappropriate extra bollarding at locks;
    • downgrading of the navigation needs in favour of the walkways;
    • installation of railings under current bridges which are a danger to boaters;
    • the installation of new fixed/swing bridges (for instance as was proposed in the Kildare Greenway Part 8 submission to which this group have made a submission);
    • and as part of any strategy method statements for canal maintenance, ongoing maintenance dredging in particular also needs to be formulated and published.
  • an element of any master plan for the integration of the walking and cycling route within the existing heritage and historical value of the overall Green and Silver route should be explored.


Downgrading of the navigation through various elements such a decrease in maintenance are causing major problems however a more recent situation has also arisen with a major reduction in staff levels on the navigation system, resulting in the need to schedule boat passage well in advance and sometimes a wait of up to 24 hours for assistance with passage through a lock. This has had a major impact on boat traffic in the last couple of seasons and in particular detracts from the freedom of boats to move with as little assistance from lockkeepers as possible. It is recommended Heritage Ireland 2030 seek a policy that permits boaters to use locks on an as need basis within reason e.g. daylight hours, as it is unreasonable to expect the tourist to have to constantly check access for passage and endure possibly several episodes of waiting many hours for the help of relevant lock keeping staff.

If the Green and Silver route is to be taken advantage of, this submission recommends the appointment of a special projects officer for the development of the waterways and in particular the Green and Silver route from Dublin to and throughout the midlands at its various points located within local authority or the Heritage Council.

The Green and Silver network would also benefit from a development sub strategy in order to undertake a circular route needs assement and develop them into opportunities; identify various funding channels for infrastructure that may be required; and put in place a SMART timeline for achievement of objectices with any Heritage Ireland 2030 plan. Utilisizing the Green and Silver route for integrated regional development across boating, tourism, economic and social regeneration is a medium to long term project and should be accorded the time and resources accordingly, coordinated by Heritage Ireland 2030 perhaps from a regional office in the midlands.

The collective power of the local authorities and the Heritage Ireland 2030 agenda are suggested as the most beneficial method by which the route can be developed to its potential; and by which the collective needs of the local authorites can be addressed with agencies such as Waterways Ireland; Failte Ireland; Discover Ireland, Inland Fisheries and Irish Water.

Inland Waterways International have pointed to this current few years being the renaissance of the inland boating systems across Europe with a recent large development taking place for instance at Gdansk Bay and the Vistula Lagoon in Poland, and note projects in France, Czech Republic, Sweden, the eastern Länder of Germany (with the new lift at Niederfinow), and major projects also continuing in the Netherlands and Belgium (new, bigger locks), along the Danube (Serbia and Croatia) and in many other places, even on the (relatively) small canals in the North-East of England (IWI, 2018).

Notwithstanding that some local authorities are paying attention to the opportunities available from canals, however primarily from the greenway perspective rather than the navigation and tourism opportunities that could ensue and in somewhat of a ‘per county’ perspective understandably looking after their own particular need where required – in conclusion, this submission suggests it is imperative that this route is given some due regard and some years of due diligence regarding its development from an overall regional planning perspective and is strongly integrated into the Heritage Ireland 2030 plan.

Finally, to advise the IWAI Nav-Watch group are available to further develop points on this proposal and submit a range of further reference material if required, within any review of the submission made herewith. Indeed we would welcome an opportunity as a group of experienced and expert users of the inlands navigations across the country in general and in particular on the Green and Silver route, to contribute further to any final report that may ensue from this submission in the finalization of the overall Heritage Ireland 2030 plan.

Signed: IWAI Nav-Watch committee

References Buckman, S. (2016) Canal oriented development as waterfront place-making: an analysis of the built form, Journal of Urban Design, 21 (6), pp 785-801

Deas, I., Peck, J., Tickell, A., Ward, K., Bradford., (1998) Rescripting Urban Regeration The Mancunian Way  Chapter for R Imrie and H Thomas (eds) British urban policy and the UDCs (2nd edition) London: Paul Chapman Publishing [Online] Available at: [Accessed 10th December 2018]

Lennon, J.J., (2016) Transforming Waterways: The Tourism Based Regeneration of Canals in Scotland, Heritage and Tourism in Britain and Ireland. In Hooper G. (eds) Heritage and Tourism in Britain and Ireland. Palgrave Macmillan, London

McKean, A., Harriss, J., Lennon, J. (2017) The Kelpies, the Falkirk Wheel and the tourism related regeneration of Scottish Canals, International Journal of Tourism Research, 19 (6), pp 736-745

Maeer, G. & Millar, G (2004) Evaluation of the UK waterway regeneration and restoration, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Municipal Engineer, 157, (2), pp 103-109.

Millar, G. & Maeer, G., (2004) Economic Evaluation of the Kennet & Avon Canal Restoration, Countryside Recreation, 12 (1) pp 20-24

Stening, T (2004) Restoration of the Cotswold Canals, Cotswold Canal Restoration, Gloucestershire Society for Industrial Archaeology Journal, [Online] Available at: [Accessed 2nd December 2018].

IWI (2018) Inland Waterways International [Online] Available at: [Accessed 2nd December 2018]

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